Winnick, T.A., and Bodkin, M. (2009) Stigma, Secrecy and Race An Empirical Examination of Black and White Incarcerated Men American Journal of Criminal Justice, 34, 131-150. doi: 10.1007/s12103-008-9050-2 This article seeks to discover if there are differences between black and white races in terms of how they perceive being labeled “ex-cons” and whether, when it comes to possibly being stigmatized, blacks are less likely than whites to be secretive about their “ex-con” status when they are released from prison and re-enter society. Specifically, Winnick and Bodkin were studying modified labeling theory, and set out to “determine if race differences in deviant identity exist and if race is a factor in endorsement of secrecy as a coping...The end:
.....th formal labeling (by officials or the court system) as well as informal labeling (by parents, teachers, peers and the community) is examined. Some studies illustrate that labeling by officials, the court system and teachers have a greater impact than labeling by parents, family and peers. Likewise, researchers are beginning to take a closer look at how the labeled individual actually perceives the label. It is being revealed that self-concept is an important component of labeling theory – that there is a subjective piece of the formula that should not be overlooked. Labeling theory is important to comprehend in the criminal justice field because it is vital that criminal behavior is understood in order to have a more productive community.