U.S. Counter-Intelligence Programs Counter-intelligence has been a part of America’s defense strategy since George Washington hired spies like Nathan Hale during the American Revolution. Following World War II as the Cold War developed such activities grew in importance and complexity. In reaction to apparent abuses by secret agencies like the CIA or law enforcement agencies like the FBI under President Nixon, Congress began to exercise greater control over the executive branch in the 1970s. However, secret counter-intelligence operations continued to increase especially during the Reagan Administration. By the time President Bush took office in 2001 there were fifteen different federal agencies involved in intelligence gathering. Most...The end:
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