The Viking, Muslim, and Magyar Invasions of Europe During the Ninth and Tenth Centuries The Background When Charlemagne died in 814, Louis the Pious, his sole surviving son, succeeded him as emperor. However, he attempted to invoke the Roman instead of the Frankish law of succession, and give sole reign to his eldest son, Charles the Bald, at the expense of Charles’ half brothers, Louis and Lothair. This precipitated civil war between his greedy and unscrupulous sons. Louis and Lothair rose up against this and began a series of civil wars, which ended when Charles and Louis joined forces against Lothair. All three warring parties eventually agreed to a truce with the Treaty of Verdun in 843. West Francia was given to Charles the Bald, East...The end:
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