The Origins of Urban Planning, 1845-1895 Introduction The study and profession of Urban Planning owe in part to Friedrich Engels’ comments in, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844. (1845). Engels referred to several British industrial cities and Manchester in particular where he gained from twenty months’ observation of a harsh working class life known to 350,000 persons who lived in dirty, damp, crowded conditions. (1845:54) Fifty years later, visitors to London’s Rookeries and other slum areas in London reported quite similar conditions. As Engels had commented “Londoners have been forced to sacrifice the best qualities of their human nature, to bring to pass all the marvels of civilization which crowd their city.”...The end:
..... as the way to counteract poverty. There is probably more fear of the poor underclass for its criminal reputation, association with drug addiction, violence and communicable disease than was true, a century ago. Last Remarks Engel’s approach to English industrial cities of the 1840s contributed to the rise of a scientific study and profession of Urban Planning. It is interesting that some concepts of urban poverty, its traits, and how to counteract it, remain visible in the early 21st century. References Engels, F. (1845). The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844. (course material). Hall, P.G. (2002). Cities of Tomorrow – an Intellectual History of Urban Planning & Design in the 20th Century. 3rd edition. London: Blackwell.