Social Change and Non-Violence Part A Negotiation – Negotiation is one of the four major means of conflict resolution (in addition to coercion, avoidance & mediation/arbitration/adjudication). Unlike mediation and the other means of conflict resolution, in negotiation a dispute is settled bilaterally with both parties acting as decision-makers. Despite the power differentials between oppressor and oppressed, the negotiation table places both on an equal status, at least in the process itself. If negotiation fails, the oppressed can turn to direct action in the form of civil disobedience, non-cooperation etc. This equal status at the table, together with how negotiation fosters agency with both parties – giving them control over key...The end:
.....require adherence to an institutionalized belief system. For example, many feminists are highly critical of the gender hierarchies and associated injustice of systems many organized religions (Fernandes 57-58). However, spirituality has been identified as a source of strength for many advocates for social change in the West, and in modern times. In the words of one activity: “This is spirituality for social change, spirituality that recognizes the many differences among us yet insists on our commonalities and uses these commonalities as catalysts for transformation” (Fernandes 59). In fostering unity in diversity, within a framework of compassion and love, spirituality can be seen as a critical pillar of educational activism in our society.