Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Originally designed by Hathaway and McKinley at the University of Minnesota in the 1930s, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is one of the most widely used and studied clinical testing instruments in the field of psychology. Despite its widespread use, the MMPI was the subject of considerable criticism. Over the years the MMPI has been said to be racially and gender biased not just in results but in the actual language of the questions, themselves. Early on, scholars and psychologists had believed that the original sample group was too small to demonstrate the accuracy of the testing instrument. In 1989, the University of Minnesota released a revised version of the...The end:
.....hological Injury and Law. 3(1), 77-80. Friedman, A.; Lewak , R.; Nichols, D.; and Webb, J. (2001). Psychological assessment with the MMPI-2. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Karp, C. & Karp, L. ( n.d .). General information on the MMPI. S.P.A.R.C. Accessed from http://deltabravo.net/custody/mmpi-info.php. McIntire, S. & Miller, L. (2007). Foundations of psychological testing: a practical approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. MMPI-2 Scales. (2010). University of Minnesota. Accessed from http://www.upress.umn.edu/tests/mmpi2_scales.html Nichols, D. (2006). The trials of separating bath water from baby: a review and critique of the MMPI-2 restructured clinical scales. Journal of Personality Assessment. 87(2), 121-138.