Media Effects and Media Audiences Hodkinson (2010) says that Adorno , Horkheimer , and Marcuse see consumption as a means of incorporating consumers into the culture industry. This, according to these Frankfurt School thinkers, is the ideological function of the mass media and advertising. This essay explores this idea through an examination of media users and the effects that media has on these users, and argues that while there are merits to the Frankfurt School understanding of the effects of media, it considers audiences very passive and does not sufficiently recognize the agency of the media user. First, it is necessary to explain the Frankfurt School’s understanding of the media as part of the “culture industry” ( Hodkinson , 2010,...The end:
.....ture industry theory of the Frankfurt School would have to be considered to be weighed too heavily on the production side and not take sufficient account of audience participation, even if they did make important points about how the conditions of production influence the content of media and the meanings it carries that reflect the interests of power. Audiences are not only consumers, but also producers of meaning, and the relationship between people and the media is more complex than the one-way model promoted by the Frankfurt School. Works Cited Hodkinson , P. (2010). Media, Culture, and Society: An Introduction. New York: Sage Publications. Mansell , R. (2004). Political economy, power, and new media. New Media and Society 6 (1):96-105.