Hox Genes and Early Evolution of Vertebrate Limbs

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Essay #: 072461
Total text length is 10,233 characters (approximately 7.1 pages).

Excerpts from the Paper

The beginning:
Hox Genes and Early Evolution of Vertebrate Limbs
As part of the genetic network,
Hox
genes operate on the molecular level to determine the placement of bodily parts on a living organism. “
Hox
” is a contraction of “
homeobox
,” which are pairs of DNA sequence inside a gene.
Hox
genes are regulatory, in that they regulate what other genes do and how they work together to form complex structures.
Hox
genes are positional signaling molecules; for example, specific
Hox
genes determine where, when, and how limb buds will form on the embryonic structure. Although the exact molecular mechanism or operation is not yet entirely understood, studies indicate that
Hox
genes may interact with other signaling chemicals; Tickle, for example, suggests...
The end:
.....dage Expression Driven by the
Hoxd
Global Control Region is an Ancient
Gnathostome
Feature.” PNAS. (June, 2011): Retrieved November 16, 2011 from <http://www.pnas.org/content/108/31/12782.full>
Tickle,
Cheryll
. “Developmental Cell Biology: Making Digit Patterns in the Vertebrate Limb.” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 7, (January 2006): 45-53.
Wang,
Zhe
, et al. “Adaptive Evolution of 5′HoxD Genes in the Origin and Diversification of the Cetacean Flipper.” Oxford Journal. (December, 2008): Retrieved November 16, 2011 from <http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/3/613.full>
Zakany
J,
Duboule
D. “The role of
Hox
Genes During Vertebrate Limb Development.” Current Opinion in Genetic Development. 17.4 (August, 2007): 359-366.