Environmental Ethics: Nature as Possessing Independent Value


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Essay #: 054272
Total text length is 7,406 characters (approximately 5.1 pages).

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The beginning:
Environmental ethics: Nature as possessing independent value
Many environmentalists claim (or imply by their actions and arguments) that nature (certainly parts of it) possesses a value independent of any human value. Beyond that, such environmentalists implicitly or explicitly claim that this value has moral consequences insofar as it places limits on human behaviour. Over the next few pages, this essay will examine what may be considered the best theoretical foundation (the most plausible foundation) for this view: Darwinist philosophy combined with utilitarianism and even a dash of Rousseau. In the end, if one accepts that things which value things can value them without being sentient (and therefore are worthy of being considered in...
The end:
.....ism and even Rousseau, too.  
Brandon, Robert. “Natural selection.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2008. Stanford University. 7 Oct. 2009 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/natural-selection/#NatSelEvoThe
Craig, Edward. (ed.). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 1998. 8 Oct. 2009 http://books.google.ca/books?id=hUOGlDTtqroC&dq=%22living+things%22+%2B+%22value%22+%2B+%22philosophy%22&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Rolston III, Holmes. “Naturalizing values: organisms and species.” Philosophical Theories of Nature. 107-119 (additional information not provided). 
Veenhoven, Ruut. “Happiness as an aim in public policy.” 2004. 8 Oct. 2009 http://www2.eur.nl/fsw/research/veenhoven/Pub2000s/2004c-full.pdf