Demographic Approaches, Developing Societies and Ecocentric vs. Anthropocentric Environmentalists 1 There are three major distinctions between the demographic approaches of Marx and Malthus, centering on (1) the perfectability of society; (2) the inevitability of poverty; and (3) the limits of technology as applied to the problem of food. Malthus advanced a dismal view of demography, one in which society was progressing towards a state of increasing crowdedness, poverty, hunger, and misery. To Malthus, the increase of population also meant the increase in the sum total of human unhappiness, given the steadily shrinking proportion of resources to demand. Marxist approaches, meanwhile, advanced a view of society in which there was a steady...The end:
.....a model of political organization based on a vision of the entire earth as a stakeholder for human policies, whereas anthropocentric thinkers would not be as concerned about the impact of political decisions on the rest of the earth (especially if there was a fundamental clash between human political goals, such as the attainment of middle-class, consumerist lives, and the biosphere’s welfare). Both ecocentric and anthropocentric environmentalists agree on the importance of defending the biosphere against certain human policies, but ecocentric thinkers go much further. Ecocentric thinkers are not constrained, as anthropocentric thinkers are, by having to retain a central conceptual, political, and economic place for humans in the biosphere.