Concepts of Male and Female in The Odyssey and Othello Up until around the middle of the twentieth century, it was widely believed that gender is assigned by biology, with the result that biological maleness inevitably implies sociological masculinity (or male gender), and biological femaleness inevitably implies sociological femininity (or female gender). It was also widely assumed that all infants are born clearly and indisputably either one sex or the other, and that once they reach sexual maturity they will inevitably choose a sexual partner of the “opposite” sex. These assumptions are referred to as biological essentialism, and are predicated on a view of the world that reduces most of human behaviour to mere biology (Fausto-Sterling...The end:
.....edge, 1990. De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. New York: Virago Books, 1974. Delph-Janiurek, Tom. “Sounding Gender(ed): Vocal Performances in English University Teaching Spaces. In Giltrow, Janet (Ed.) Academic Reading: Reading & Writing in the Disciplines. 2nd edition. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2002. Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. New York: Basic Books, 2000. Homer. The Odyssey. Lukinbeal, Christopher and Stuart C. Aitken. “Sex, Violence and the Weather: Male Hysteria, Scale and the Fractal Geography of Patriarchy.” In Heidi J. Nast and Steve Pile. Places Through the Body. Routledge, 1998. Shakespeare, William. Othello. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1959.