Chemical Warfare: An Analysis Introduction Chemicals were first used in warfare in ancient times, primarily in the form of sulfer mixed with pitch resin, which created noxious fumes intended to incapacitate enemy soldiers, but these attempts had little effect and chemical warfare was virtually nonexistent until the 19th century, when sulfer may have been used during the American Civil War as a counter-tunneling device. Chemical warfare was resorted to in World War One because generals on both sides had concluded that it was virtually impossible to break the stalemate of trench warfare through conventional artillery and infantry attacks. Chlorine and mustard gas were the most commonly used chemical agents and inflicted significant numbers...The end:
.....Tucker, War of Nerves: Chemical Warfare from World War I To Al-Qaeda (New York: Anchor, 2007). p. 193. Henry Sokolski, "Looming Security Threats, Rethinking Bio-Chemical Dangers", Orbis, Spring 2000. CRS Report for Congress, â€œHigh Threat Chemical Agents: Characteristics, Effects, and Policy Implications.â€ Online. Ibid. pp.4-5. Ibid. pp. 6-7. Ibid. p.7. Chemical Casualty Care Division, Medical Management of Chemical Casualties Handbook, Third Edition (Fort Lewis, WA: United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, August, 1999). pp. 29. Gert Harigel, Chemical and Biological Weapons (New York: Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, 2001). p. 18. Ibid. p.29. â€œThe Chemical Weapons Convention.â€ Arms Control Association. Online.